Originally published Friday, April 13, 2018 at 06:00a.m.

BOSTON (AP) – In the five years since the Boston Marathon bombing, medical science has made promising advances in amputations and artificial limbs, in part because of lessons learned from the victims and research dollars made available as a result of the attack.

Some of the 17 people who lost limbs in the April 15, 2013, bombing could, like many other amputees, benefit from these developments, since many are coming to a crossroads in their treatment. A number still struggle with pain, and others may be looking to replace their prostheses, which are approaching the end of their useful life.

"The collective experience in the aftermath of the Boston Marathon bombing was a very positive one in the medical community because there was a lot of crosstalk between military and civilian surgeons," said Dr. Benjamin Potter, chief of orthopedics at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center in Maryland, where three survivors were treated and doctors are attempting some of the cutting-edge procedures.

"That exchange and that dialogue has been one of the silver linings to have come out of this, in that we're hopefully better educated and better prepared for the next one."

Among other places where research is taking place is Boston, where doctors are working to combine an improved amputation method with more sophisticated artificial limbs so that amputees can one day use their brains to control their prostheses.

The project grew out of lessons learned by Boston doctors treating victims of the marathon attack. It also was made possible by $200,000 in seed funding from the Gillian Reny Stepping Strong Center for Trauma Innovation , a foundation launched by the family of a bombing survivor treated at Brigham & Women's Hospital.

"One of the things the bombings crystallized for me was the need to improve amputations," said Dr. Matthew Carty, a Brigham & Women's surgeon who is developing the new amputation technique. "We've made amazing advances in prosthetics technology – really by leaps and bounds – but the way we do amputations hasn't kept up to speed with the capabilities that exist now."

The new lower-leg amputation technique, which has so far been done on seven people, preserves tendons normally severed during an amputation. Tendons connect muscles to bone and are necessary to move one's limbs.

The hope is that researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology can then develop technology that will translate brain signals into movement of an artificial leg. Amputees might one day even be able to perceive sensations through their prostheses.

"We're systematically redesigning the body along with synthetics in order to maximize communication between the body and the machine," said Hugh Herr, co-director of the Center for Extreme Bionics at MIT and a partner with Carty on the project. "It's remarkably exciting."